NFPA 2112

Standard on Flame-Resistant Clothing for Protection of Industrial Personnel Against Short-Duration Thermal Exposures from Fire

Standard on Flame-Resistant Clothing for Protection of Industrial Personnel Against Short-Duration Thermal Exposures from Fire

NFPA 2112 specifies the minimum performance requirements and test methods for flame-resistant fabrics and components and the design and certification requirements for garments for use in areas at risk from flash fires. It establishes specific criteria for testing garments using the ASTM F1930 test method and the ASTM D6413 test method.

  • Using the ASTM F1930 manikin test, NFPA 2112 requires less than 50% 2nd and 3rd degree burn to pass. Garments are exposed to a 3-second engulfment fire at 2 cal/cm2and the total predicted body burn is measured. The test is three seconds – for two reasons:
    1. In theory, that is the upper limit of flash fire duration, and
    2. It is the area of greatest variability in results, affording the most accurate differentiation of fabric performance. The upper limit is 50% burn because survival rates plummet as TBSA (total body surface area) burns exceed that level.
  • Garments must be cut to a standard pattern, size 42-RG coverall, and tested over 100% cotton t-shirt and briefs.
  • Tyndale’s “Flash Fire Rated” clothing is defined as having 50% or less predicted body burn in 3 seconds, according to the specifications of NFPA 2112 (ASTM F1930 test method).
  • The fabric must not melt, drip, or have more than 2 seconds afterflame or 4.0 inches char length when tested and after 25 launderings when using ASTM D6413 test method.

Note: NFPA 2112 requires a maximum 4-inch char length when a garment is tested according to ASTM D6413. ASTM F1506, (Standard Performance Specification for Flame Resistant Textile Materials for Wearing Apparel for use by Electrical Workers Exposed to Momentary Arc and Related Thermal Hazards) requires a maximum 6-inch char length when ASTM D6413 is used. As long as the fabric sample does not ignite and continue to burn (called BEL for Burn Entire Length), char lengths at or below 6” are not meaningful predictors of thermal protective performance of the fabric in flash fire. In other words, some fabrics with relatively low char lengths have significantly higher body burn percentages in the manikin test than other fabrics with relatively higher char lengths. Char length differences below 6” do not correlate to protective performance or ASTM F1930 manikin test results, and we do not recommend inclusion of char length in specifications for this reason.


NFPA 2112 requires the following:

  • All garments must have a product label or labels permanently and conspicuously attached to each flame-resistant garment.
  • All garments labeled as compliant with NFPA 2112 must meet or exceed all applicable requirements specified in this standard and shall be UL certified
  • The UL certification organization’s label, symbol, or identifying mark shall be attached to the product label, be part of the product label, or be immediately adjacent to the product label.
  • NFPA 2112 outlines 17 test methods, including four pass/fail tests: flame resistance, manikin testing, thermal shrinkage resistance, and heat resistance. The other tests are report-only; that is, data is collected and reported, but it is not used to pass or fail a fabric.

The most recent update to NFPA 2112 is the 2018 edition. Changes of note related to flame resistant protective apparel include:

  1. Updated Title and New Terminology:
  • The term “flash fire” was changed to “short-duration thermal exposure from fire” throughout the standard, including the title. According to the standard, short-duration thermal exposure from fire is defined as “A period of egress from or accidental exposure to thermal events, including but not limited to, vapor cloud fires, jet flames, liquid fires (pool fires or running liquid fires), solids fires (fires of solid materials or dust fires), or warehouse fires.”The term “inherent flame resistance” has been added to the standard from NFPA 1971, Standard on Protective Ensembles for Structural Fire Fighting and Proximity Fire Fighting. Inherent flame resistance is defined as “Flame resistance that is derived from the essential characteristic of the fiber or polymer,” according to the standard.
  1. Head, Neck, and Hand Protection Included: NFPA 2112-18 now applies to the design, manufacturing, and certification of shrouds/hoods/balaclavas, defined as items intended to protect the head and/or neck, and gloves, defined as garments designed to protect the hands and wrist.
  • Shroud, hood, and balaclava fabric shall not melt and drip, separate, or ignite during the heat resistance test and should also comply with the following requirements:
    • Spaced method Heat Transfer Performance (HTP) > 6.0 calories per centimeter, and Contact method HTP ≥ 3.0
    • Char length ≤ 4.0 inches (as received and after 100 industrial laundries)
    • After flame time ≤ 2.0 seconds (as received and after 100 industrial laundries)
    • Thermal shrinkage ≤ 10.0%
  • FR gloves shall meet all of the criteria above and may not exceed 5.0% of their original weight in consumed material.
  • It’s important to note that the ASTM F1930 Thermal Manikin Test is not required for fabrics for use in shrouds, hoods, balaclavas, and gloves.
  1. Cold Weather Insulation Guidance: The standard now provides guidance for FR cold weather insulation. The standard states that a flame resistance test is performed according to the ASTM D6413 Vertical Flame Test, and the NFPA 2112 performance criteria require the fabric to self-extinguish, not melt and drip, result in a char length of fewer than 4.0 inches, and have an after flame of fewer than 2.0 seconds once removed from the direct flame.Non-FR Emblems: Annex A. was added to specify requirements for non-flame resistant (non-FR) emblems. No more than five non-FR emblems may be attached to the exterior of a garment, Individual emblems may not cover an area exceeding 16 square inches and combined, the non-FR emblems are limited to covering an area of 40 square inches per garment.


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